IGNOU Environment Ecology Pdf Free Download – In order to further improve the competitive examination, today we have IGNOU Environment Ecology Pdf Free Download. where questions are often asked in competitive examinations. If you are preparing for SSC, BANK, RAILWAY, IAS and other competitive exams, then this note will be very useful for all of you. IGNOU Environment Ecology PDF Free Download
IGNOU Environment Ecology PDF Free Download
Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) Book of every subject will help you to understand the basics of any topic, so it is recommended to IAS Aspirants to read IGNOU Books, Here we are providing IGNOU Environment Ecology Pdf and we are also provided all the subjects book of IGNOU. You guys can Download these IGNOU Books and Pdf absolutely free. IGNOU Environment Ecology PDF Free Download
What Is Environment?
Every living organism is constantly interacting with its environment comprised of air, light, water, land or substratum and the various kinds of living organisms. The environment may be defined as the surroundings or conditions in which an organism lives or operates. The environment broadly includes living and non-living components.
Topic Covered in IGNOU Environment Ecology PDF Free Download
ORIGIN OF EARTH AND EVOLUTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT:-
We live on a beautiful planet called earth, along with a wide variety of plants, animals and other organisms. Our earth, however, is part of a vast universe. The universe is about 15 to 20 billion years old. The age of the earth is approximately 4 to 5 billion years, while human beings evolved only around 2 million years ago. In this lesson, you shall learn how the earth originated, how it got its own environment and in what ways human beings have been using the environmental resources for their welfare and development.
ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN SOCIETY:-
The human beings (Homo sapiens sapiens), evolved more than two million years ago. They evolved with a large brain, that enabled them to think, and use their judgment. Humans walked erect on two legs, which made their hands free to negotiate manual functions. As is with other animals, the survival of humans also entirely depended on their obtaining food from the environment. Being intelligent, human beings exploit environmental resources for many purposes other than just for procuring food. In the last few centuries, the exploitation of environmental resources has dramatically increased, leading to serious damage and degradation of the environment. In this lesson, you shall learn about the utilization and exploitation of natural resources and how they are being overexploited.
DEGRADATION OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENT:-
When humans evolved more than two million years ago, the natural resources were overabundant as compared to human needs. As the human population increased, more and more food and resources for shelter were required and these were drawn at an increasing rate from the environment. Even today, natural resources are being exploited by humans to meet their needs. In this lesson, you shall learn how human activities degrade and deplete the natural resources of the environment.
PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY:-
In the previous module (module-1) you have learned about the origin and evolution of the environment. You have also learned how humans have been interacting with the environment. In this lesson, which is the first one in the module-2, you will learn some important concepts of ecology which are an established branch of science.
You know that earth is perhaps the only planet in the solar system that supports life. The portion of the earth which sustains life is called the biosphere. The biosphere is very huge and can not be studied as a single entity. It is divided into many distinct functional units called an ecosystem. In this lesson, you will study the structure and functions of the ecosystem.
Whenever you travel long distance you come across changing patterns of landscape. As you move out from your city or village, you see croplands, grasslands, or in some areas a forests, desert or a mountainous region. These distinct landscapes are differentiated primarily due to the type of vegetation in these areas. Physical and geographical factors such as rainfall, temperature, elevation, soil type, etc. determine the nature of the vegetation. In this lesson, you will learn about the natural ecosystems with their varied vegetation and associated wildlife.
HUMAN MODIFIED ECOSYSTEMS
The greed and need of human being have modified and changed the natural ecosystems greatly. The main reasons for the modification of natural ecosystems are and 1) increasing human population 2) increasing human needs and 3) changing lifestyles. In this lesson you will learn about different types of human-modified ecosystems, the modifications brought about for their optimum utilization.
In this lesson, you shall learn about the settlements of humans in villages and cities, related characteristics, associated lifestyles and environmental changes resulting from the explosive growth of human population and human settlements.
In the previous lessons, you have learned about the environment, its components, and various ecological concepts. You have also acquainted yourself with the natural ecosystem and man-made ecosystems. Humans have altered the ecosystems according to their own needs without thinking about the consequences. Their need combined with greed has caused much damage to the environment, which will affect the coming generations. The expansion of agriculture, urbanization, and industrialization needed the land which was obtained by large scale clearing of forests. The deforestation has changed the scenario of developed and developing countries and has brought out vast changes resulting in various environmental problems. In this lesson, you are going to study about deforestation, its causes, and effect on the environment.
In this lesson, you will study about the major causes of pollution, their effects on our environment and the various measures that can be taken to control such pollutions.
About IGNOU Environment Ecology PDF Free Download
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